Verb basics : Tense, Voice, Mood

Tense- indicates aspect and time of verbal action

Present – verb tense that normally expresses progressive action occurring in the present

Future- the tense that normally expresses verbal action occurring in the future in relation to the speaker/writer. (this tense is used in other contexts in which the verbal action is voluntative, gnomic or deliberative.

Aorist – tense that usually presents verbal action simply and in summary fashion. This is in contrast to the notion commonly conveyed by the imperfect: ongoing action. In the indicative mood, the aorist commonly denotes past time. The aorist is sometimes spoken of as indefinite.

Imperfect – verb tense that normally denotes progressive (ongoing) past action

Perfect- tense than normally denotes verbal action that has been completed in the past but which has present results.

Pluperfect- the tense that normally denotes an action that was completed in the past and whose results were also felt in the past (before the time of the writer/speaker). Also called the past perfect.

Voice- feature of verb that expresses its relationship to the subject, whether the action is directed toward the

Direct object (active voice)- voice that signifies that the subject is performing or causing the verbal action.

Subject (passive voice)- – the voice that conveys that the subject is being affected by or is the receiver of the verbal action.

Action directed by subject back toward subject (middle/reflexive voice)

Mood- denotes nature of verbal idea with regards to actuality or potentiality

Imperative mood- expresses command or declaration of volition- in realm of possible to become actual

Opative mood- used in prayers, wishes to denote action that is possible

Subjunctive mood-action as being possible or probable

Indicative mood-verbal idea as being actual or real as opposed to that which is only possible or intended

DeMoss, Matthew S. Pocket Dictionary For The Study of New Testament Greek. 2001

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